Yeah I know, steering, particularly countersteering, gets done to death regularly. So ignore this if you're not interested I've just been thinking about basic steering forces, stuff that most of you will already know from experience. Just writing down my thoughts as a newbie :grin:. For brevity I'm stating everything as fact, but everything is really "I think..." - and "he" is gender-neutral This is not really about countersteering, if countersteering is understood to mean "the act of getting the bike to lean at the correct angle". This assumes that the bike magically gets to the correct lean angle, so countersteering can be ignored. --- So, first of all, there are two distinct processes by which a bike can turn: 1. Turning the front wheel. For example, on a tricycle, or when slow maneuvering; there is no lean. 2. Leaning the wheels. For example, on a monocycle, or when leaning the bike by shifting your weight without touching the handlebars. During any turn, centrifugal force will "push" the bike towards the outside of the turn. This acts upon all parts of bike and rider equally (by mass). However, because the bike has traction at point of contact with the road, the contact patch acts as a hinge upon which the bike rotates. In the absence of any other forces, the bike will topple over to the outside. So in (1), without leaning the bike, the rider must lean to the inside, pulling the bike with him in the opposite direction around the contact-patch hinge. [Note that on a physical bike it's a bit more complicated, because simply turning the front wheel when stationary will move the centre of gravity of the bike to the outside of the wheel line. So when moving the rider has to lean this amount to the inside, plus an additional amount to counteract the centrifugal force. Since this technique is used in slow maneuvering, the additional rider lean to counteract the centrifugal force will be relatively small.] In (2), the bike and rider lean together to move the entire combined centre of gravity to the inside of the turn. There are now just two forces acting on the bike: gravity pulling the bike to the inside around the contact-patch hinge, and centrifugal force pulling the bike to the outside around the contact-patch hinge. To be stable, the two forces must add up so that the rider and bike feels just one force pulling straight down the rider's back and bike into the ground. Then (as long as you maintain traction ) the forces are just like riding in a straight line, except you happen to be curving. Finally, you can of course combine (1) and (2). Since (2) is just like riding in a straight line, exactly the same forces as in (1) are added, and in the same way. The front wheel can be turned into the curve, and the rider must lean (only now it's called "hang") himself out of line with the bike, further into the curve, to offset the additional centrifugal force. [Note that in this case, unlike slow maneuvering, the centrifugal force from turning the wheel can be greater, requiring a greater rider lean, or hang.] --- So yeah, that's what I've been thinking about lately Cheers!