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Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
Not all lumps on the testicles are tumors, and not all tumors are cancer. There are many other conditions, such as testicular microlithiasis, epididymal cysts, and appendix testis (hydatid of Morgagni), which may be painful but are non-cancerous.
Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers with an average five-year survival rate of 95%. If the cancer has not spread outside the testicle, the 5-year survival is 99% while if it has grown into nearby structures or has spread to nearby lymph nodes, the rate is 96% and if it has spread to organs or lymph nodes away from the testicles, the 5-year survival is around 74%. Even for the relatively few cases in which cancer has spread widely, chemotherapy offers a cure rate of at least 80%.
Globally testicular cancer resulted in 8,300 deaths in 2013 up from 7,000 deaths in 1990. In the United States, about 8,000 cases are diagnosed a year. In the UK, approximately 2,000 people are diagnosed each year, over a lifetime, the risk of testicular cancer is roughly 1 in 200 (0.5%). It is the most common cancer in males aged 20–39 years, the period when it is most common to start, and is rarely seen before the age of 15 years.
Testicular cancer, Cryptorchidism, Hypospadias and poor Semen quality make up the syndrome known as Testicular dysgenesis syndrome.