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Taralga is a small village in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Upper Lachlan Shire. It is located at the intersection of the Goulburn-Oberon Road and the Laggan-Taralga Road. It is accessible from Oberon to the north, Mittagong to the east, Goulburn to the south, and Crookwell to the west. At the 2011 census, Taralga had a population of 285 people. The exact origin of the name Taralga is disputed. The two most widely supported theories are that the village was originally known as "Trial Gang" as within the early colonial boundaries of Argyle County, it was a location for the trials of convicts and bushrangers before the Crown. The second theory is that Taralga means "native companion" in the language of the Burra Aboriginal people. Taralga is located relatively close to the famous Wombeyan Caves. The town experiences a mild climate and is frequently affected by snow in the winter months.
The population of Taralga has fluctuated over time reflecting the town's fortunes. There were approximately 100 residents in 1863, growing to over 700 by the 1890s. Immediately after the depression of the 1890s, the population shrank to half this size, but recovered by mid the 1950s almost to its peak level. Today the town and surrounds service around 400 people.