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Austroads Motorcycle In-depth Crash Study 2015-11-06

Austroads Motorcycle In-depth Crash Study

  1. StillSpeedy
    For those who have not seen it yet, Austroads posted a study into motorbike crashes. What do you think?


    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road crash casualties in NSW and Australia. This study aimed to examine the:

    • causal relationships between human, vehicle, road and other environmental factors and motorcyclist involvement in serious injury crashes; and
    • influence of the total system (i.e. the rider, the vehicles and the crash site) on the nature and pattern of injuries sustained by seriously injured motorcyclists.
    A case-control in-depth crash investigation approach coupled with expert multidisciplinary panel review of cases was used. Cases were motorcyclists who had been seriously or fatally injured in a crash on NSW roads. Controls were riders who had ridden, but not crashed on the same section of road where the case crash occurred.

    The results indicate that riders using sports motorcycles and who are unfamiliar with their motorcycle, have a greater likelihood of being involved in serious injury crashes than riders using other motorcycle types and those very familiar with their vehicles. Protective factors identified in the case-control analysis included increasing age of the rider, and increased coverage by protective clothing. An additional protective effect was observed when the trip purpose was reported as commuting or general transport rather than for recreational purposes.

    Four major themes arose in relation to crash causation and countermeasures: motorcyclists need to be seen; braking ability needs to be optimised; rider control needs to be maintained; and riders need appropriate experience.

    Table of Contents
    Summary1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Study Aims
    • 1.2 Report Structure
    2. Methods
    • 2.1 Study Development and Ethics
    • 2.2 Data Collection Methods
    • 2.2.1 In-depth crash study (cases)
    • Interviews
    • Medical data
    • Helmet and clothing inspection procedures
    • Vehicle inspection procedures
    • Scene inspections
    • Police data
    • Data Management
    • 2.2.2 Fatality study
    • 2.2.3 Case control study
    • Control recruitment and data collection procedures
    • 2.2.4 Panel review
    • 2.3 Analysis Methods
    • 2.3.1 Description of crash sample and injury outcomes
    • 2.3.2 Case control study
    • 2.3.3 Rider reported environmental factors
    • 2.3.4 Performance of protective equipment
    • Helmets
    • Protective clothing
    • 2.3.5 Qualitative analysis of crash and injury causation factors and potential countermeasures
    3. Results
    • 3.1 The Crash Sample
    • 3.1.1 Discussion of the crash sample
    • 3.2 Case Control Sample Comparisons
    • 3.2.1 General characteristics of the case and control samples
    • Demographics
    • Rider licencing and training
    • Motorcycle factors
    • Riding Exposure
    • Association with other riders
    • Crash and near miss history
    • Use of protective equipment
    • 3.2.2 Characteristics of the case and control samples related to the site specific ride
    • Trip characteristics
    • Impairment and general health
    • Use of electronic equipment
    • 3.2.3 Important points to note regarding the control sample
    • 3.3 Case Control Analysis
    • 3.3.1 Key findings
    • 3.3.2 Description and explanation of case control analysis
    • 3.3.3 Important points to note regarding the case control analysis
    • 3.4 Rider Reported Environmental Factors
    • 3.4.1 Important points to note regarding rider reported environmental factors
    • 3.5 Injury Outcomes
    • 3.5.1 Important points to note regarding injury outcomes
    • 3.6 Performance of Protection Equipment
    • 3.6.1 Helmets
    • Helmet damage type
    • Head and neck injury
    • Helmet damage location
    • Helmet type and injury
    • Major impacts and injury
    • Devices attached to the helmet shell
    • 3.6.2 Protective clothing
    • Use of protective clothing by age and bike type
    • Inspection of protective clothing
    • Type and distribution of damage to clothing
    • Upper and lower garments
    • Footwear
    • Clothing type and damage
    • Clothing type and injury
    • Clothing damage and injury
    • 3.7 Qualitative Analysis of Crash and Injury Causation Factors and Potential Countermeasures
    • 3.7.1 Common crash types
    • ‘Failed to see’ crashes (36%)
    • Rider did not stop in time (13%)
    • Rider made errors in turning or cornering, or lost control while negotiating a bend (35%)
    • Crashes during overtaking and lane change manoeuvres types (13%)
    • Crashes involving kangaroos (3%)
    • Ungrouped crashes (5%)
    • 3.7.2 Crash causation
    • Road environment
    • Uncontrolled intersections
    • Controlled intersections
    • Left hand turns
    • Cars parked on the roadway
    • Lane terminations
    • Boundaries between speed zones
    • High frequency lane-changing areas
    • Lack of shoulders or shoulders of appropriate width and/or quality
    • Curves
    • Road surfaces
    • Roadway treatments
    • Rider factors
    • Rider inexperience
    • Inappropriate speed
    • Travelling too close
    • Errors in cornering
    • Braking errors
    • Rider fatigue
    • Poor riding techniques
    • Overtaking behaviour
    • Familiarity
    • Distraction
    • Rider vision
    • Vehicle factors
    • Conspicuity
    • 3.7.3 Potential crash avoidance countermeasures
    • Road environment
    • Uncontrolled intersections
    • Controlled intersections
    • Left hand turn
    • Parked cars
    • Roadside furniture
    • Lane terminations
    • High frequency lane-changing areas
    • Shoulders
    • Curves
    • Debris
    • Road surface
    • Cars turning into driveways and performing U-turns
    • Routes frequented by recreational riders
    • Rider factors
    • Appropriate experience for ride
    • Familiarity with the motorcycle
    • Rider training and education
    • Following distances
    • Braking
    • Riding with awareness
    • Rider fatigue and the effects of distraction
    • Group riding behaviour
    • Clothing conspicuity
    • Vehicle factors
    • Enhanced brake systems
    • Intelligent speed adaption and warning systems
    • Communication
    • Shock absorbing forks
    • LAMS motorcycles
    • Rider posture and ergonomics
    • The other vehicle
    • 3.7.4 Summary of emerging crash causation and countermeasure themes
    • 3.7.5 Injury causation
    • Road environment
    • Vehicle factors
    • Rider factors
    • 3.7.6 Injury countermeasures
    • Environment factors
    • Vehicle factors
    • Rider factors
    • 3.7.7 Summary of emerging injury causation and countermeasure themes
    • 3.7.8 Post crash factors
    • 3.7.9 Important points to note about the qualitative analysis
    4. Discussion
    • 4.1 Causal relationships
    • 4.2 Nature and pattern of injury
    • 4.3 Emerging crash prevention themes
    • 4.4 Commonalities across themes
    • 4.5 Protective equipment
    • 4.6 Study limitations
    • 4.7 Areas for further study
  1. Pretty much makes me feel better about riding in the country. Most fatalities are rear ended or driven over at an intersection in a 60 zone on Thursday at eight am. Reminds me of how they talk about shark attack statistics.

  2. Not really a good study in my opinion but had a fairly decent motive.

    Blames rider conspicuity and blind spots for bikes not being seen. Apart from a mention of "time to arrival illusion" it doesn't deal with cognitive blindness or change blindness or inattentive blindness in any way.

    They need to Google "The invisible gorilla experiment".
    • Informative Informative x 1
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